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BANKING BOOKS 2021-2022 - MONEY BANK CREDIT AND ECONOMIC CYCLES DE SOTO

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The emergence of private banks in Barcelona coincided FREE BANKING BOOKS with the development of private banking in large Italian business centers. During the reign of Jaime I, BANKING BOOKS 2021-2022 - MONEY BANK CREDIT AND ECONOMIC CYCLES DE SOTO the Conqueror, (1213–1276), the Gothic and Roman laws governing business were repealed and replaced by the Usos de Barcelona. In addition, a thorough, detailed set of regulations to control banking was established by the Cortes of 1300–1301. {GOOGLEADS}It set down the powers, rights, and responsibilities of bankers, and stipulated equirements with respect to guarantors. Some of the rules adopted are quite relevant to our topic. For example, on February 13, 1300 it was established that any banker who went bankrupt FREE BANKING BOOKS DOWNLOAD PDF would be vilified throughout Barcelona by a public spokesman and forced to live on a strict diet of bread and water until he returned to his creditors the full amount of their deposits. Furthermore, on May 16, 1301, one year later, FREE BANKING BOOKS PDF it was decided that bankers would be obliged to obtain collateral or guarantees from third parties in order to operate, and those who did not would not be allowed to spread a tablecloth over their work counter. The purpose was to make clear to everyone that these bankers were not as solvent as those using tablecloths, who were backed by collateral. Any banker who broke this rule (i.e., operated with a tablecloth but without collateral) would be found guilty of fraud. 63 In view of these regulations, Barcelona’s banking system must initially have been quite solvent and banks must have largely espected the essential legal principles governing the mone- tary bank deposit. 64

Nevertheless, there are indications to show that, in spite of everything, FREE BANKING STUDY MATERIALS private bankers soon began to deceive their clients, and on August 14, 1321 the regulations pertaining to bank failures were modified. It was established that those bankers who did not immediately fulfill their commitments would be declared bankrupt, and if they did not pay their debts within one year, they would fall into public disgrace, which would be proclaimed throughout Catalonia by a town crier. Immediately afterward, the banker would be beheaded directly in BANKING BOOKS 2021-2022 front of his counter, and his property sold locally to pay his creditors. In fact, this is one of the few historical instances in which public authorities have bothered to effectively defend the general principles of property rights with espect to the monetary bank-deposit contract. While it is likely that most Catalonian bankers who went bankrupt tried to escape or pay their debts within a year, documentary evidence shows that at least one banker, a certain Francesch Castello, was beheaded directly in BANKING STUDY MATERAILS  front of his counter in 1360, in strict accordance with the law. 65 Despite these sanctions, banks’ liquid funds did not match the amount received on demand deposit. As a result, they eventually failed en masse in the fourteenth century, during the same economic and credit recession that ravaged the Italian financial world and was studied by Carlo M. Cipolla. Though there are signs that Catalonian banks held out a bit longer than Italian ones (the terrible penalties for fraud undoubtedly raised reserve ratios), documents show that in the end, Catalonian banks also generally failed to meet their obligations. In March 1397, further EXAM PREPARATION & TUTORING regulations were introduced when the public began to complain that bankers were eluctant to return money deposited, offered their clients all

The bank crisis of the fourteenth century did not lead to increased monitoring and protection of the property rights of depositors. Instead, it resulted in the creation of a municipal government bank, the Taula de Canvi, Barcelona’s Bank of Deposit. This bank was formed with the purpose of taking in deposits and using them to finance city expenditures and the issuance of government bond certificates for the city of Barcelona. Hence, the Taula de Canvi fits the traditional model of a bank created by public authorities to take direct advantage of the dishonest benefits FREE DOWNLOAD FOR PDF of banking. A.P. Usher studied the life of this bank in detail. Predictably, it ended up suspending payments (in February 1468), because a large portion of its reserves had been channeled into loans to the city of Barcelona and the bank was unable to satisfy depositors’ demands for cash withdrawals. From that point on, the bank was reorganized and gradually given more and more privileges, such as a monopoly on all deposits deriving from judicial attachments and seizures. This was an almost guaranteed source of continuous income and acted as collateral for loans to finance the city’s projects. The Taula was also granted a monopoly on resources from all administrative deposits, guardianships and testate proceedings. These funds were deposited and fixed in the bank. 66 67 68 Ibid., p. 244. 67 68 In February 1468, after a long period of strain, the Bank of Deposit was obliged to suspend specie payments completely. For all balances on the books at that date, annuities bearing interest at 5 percent were issued to depositors willing to accept them.{GOOGLEADS}Those unwilling to accept annuities remained creditors of the bank, but they were not allowed to withdraw funds in cash. (Ibid., p. 278) Documents show that in 1433, at least 28 percent of deposits in Barcelona’s Taula de Canvi came from compulsory judicial seizures and were very stable. See Usher, The Early History of Deposit Banking in Mediterranean Europe,  p. 339, and Kindleberger, A Financial History of